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  Assessing the Introduction of the Angolan Indigenous Languages in the Educational System in Luanda: A Language Policy Perspective


Author:Antonio Filipe Augusto

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The aim of this study was to find out the agenda behind language policy in Angola, and in particular it assesses the introduction of the Angolan indigenous languages in the Angolan educational system in Luanda and why the chosen languages and not others, as well as providing my iv contribution as a teacher and researcher in the matters of educational language policy. To do so, it analysed two most relevant policy documents that provides legal support to the policy and three newspaper articles that reacted to this issue.A broad review of literature on the impact of colonial and post-colonial language ideologies in the country, including the historicity of the policy makers was done. Qualitative research tools were used to gather and analyse the data. Fifteen interviews and questionnaires were conducted to gather the views of grassroots and the policy implementers.
    This research was the first study in this field in Angola. The study found that Kimbundu is being also being used as a medium of instruction in Luanda where children have Portuguese as their first language which is the opposite of what the policy UNESCO's persuasive campaign for mothertongue education and the government claims was happening. Furthermore, the research established that there is a parallel between the Angolan colonial and post-colonial language policies. Therefore, I conclude that by doing the inverse there is a government hidden agenda behind the policy which is to preserve Portuguese colonial language ideology and maintain social discrimination on the basis of language. Hence, I recommended that the government reviewed the whole set of strategies applied to implement the policy by using more inclusive practices

Antonio Filipe Augusto has been a teacher for 31 years. His teaching experience ranges from primary to tertiary education. In 1982, he began his teaching career in primary school, teaching general subjects. Twelve years later, he started teaching English as a foreign language to secondary school children and to high school vocational students. Currently, He is a lecturer and the Head of English Department at the Instituto Superior de Ciencias da Educacao - ISCED/ Luanda, where he has worked for the last 14 years as an English as a Foreign Language Teacher Trainer, dealing with various courses in the fieldof linguistics. He lectures inter alia Introduction to Linguistics Studies, Sociolinguistics, English Phonetics and Phonology and Psycholinguistics. He has BA in Teaching English as a Foreign Language from UniversidadeAgostinhoNeto (ISCED-Luanda), in Angola, Diploma in English Language Teaching and administration from the University of Warwick, in Britain, and MA in Linguistics (sociolinguistics) from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. His main research interests are in sociolinguistics (Critical Discourse Analysis and Language Ideology) and Phonetics and Phonology. He is the author of a few articles both on sociolinguistics and English phonology related to language teachers, published in the Journal of ISCED/Luanda (KULONGA). He is also the author of the first research of phonology of Kikongo, the language of the former Kingdom of Kongo (a Bantu language spoken in Angola, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo and Republic of Kongo).

Dedication i
Acknowledgement i
Tables iii
Figures iii
Abstract iii
Chapter 1 - Introduction 1
1.1. Identifi cation of the Problem and
Research Question 7
1.2. Rationale 8
1.3. The relevance of the study 10
1.4. Research report outline 13
Chapter 2 - Language policy in Angola:
a review of literature 14
Introduction 14
2.1. Language Policy in Africa 16
2.2. Language Policy in Angola 27
2.2.1. Pre-colonial era 33
2.2.2. Colonial era 34
2.2.3. Post-colonial Angola 39
Chapter 3 - Research Methodology 53
Introduction 53
3.1. Research Site 54
3.2. Research participants 60
3.2.1. Institutional Participants 61
3.2.2. Participants 63
3.3. Methods of Data Collection 65
3.3.1. Textual/document analysis 66
3.3.2. Interviews 69
3.3.3. Questionnaire 69
3.4.Methods of data analysis and interpretation 71
3.5. Ethical Appraisal 76
Chapter 4 - Data Presentation and
Analysis 78
Introduction 78
4.1. Presentation and Analysis of the Relevant
Policy Documents 80
4.1.1. Relevant Policy Documents: Resolucao no 3/87
de 23 de Maio and Lei de Bases 82 Resolucao no 3/87 de 23 de Maio 82 Lei de Bases 84
4.2. Newspaper articles 93
4.2.1. Article 1: Uma Palavra sobre as Linguas
Angolanas 93
4.2.2. Article 2: Twa sanguluka... Ngana Benedictu:
Menu de entrada 110
4.2.3. Article 3: Ministra defende linguas nacionais
nas escolas 119
4.3. Interviews 128
4.3.1. Education Policies and Programme designers
and Implementation Monitors 129
4.3.2. Teacher trainers and trainee teachers 147
4.3.5. Parents and/or guardians 164
Chapter 5 - Discussion of the Findings 181
Introduction 181
5.1. Preservation of monolingual colonial inherited
educational language policy 183
5.2. Strategic legal support of the policy ten year later 189
5.3. The ministry of education is implementing an
undesired policy 192
5.4. Kimbundu as the only indigenous language in
Luanda and medium of instruction 200
5.5. Luandans' positive perception of the policy and
positive attitudes 202
5.6. Reproduction of Portuguese colonial language
ideology in the postcolonial Angola 205
5.7. Conclusion 209
5.8. Recommendations 213
References 214

In the memory of Zeferina Lidia Costa Nzuanga and Isabel Fernandes de Sa.

You decided to leave this world while I was away from home. We were not able to say goodbye. You should have known how I miss you. You will always be in my mind. May your souls rest in the peace of the Lord.